1 Samuel 18:3 KJV
Then Jonathan and David made a covenant,
because he loved him as his own soul.
New International Version
And Jonathan made a covenant with David because he loved him as himself.
New Living Translation
And Jonathan made a solemn pact with David, because he loved him as he loved himself.
English Standard Version
Then Jonathan made a covenant with David, because he loved him as his own soul.
New King James Version
Then Jonathan and David made a covenant, because he loved him as his own soul.
Amplified Bible and the New American Standard Bible
Then Jonathan made a covenant with David because he loved him as himself.
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Jonathan and David made a covenant
Jonathan and David made a covenant, they solemnly entered into an agreement of perpetual friendship.
Such covenants of brotherhood are frequent in the East.
They are ratified by certain ceremonies, and in presence of witnesses, that the persons covenanting will be sworn brothers for life.
Made a covenant
The son of the first Hebrew king recognised in David a kindred spirit.
They were one in their God, in their faith, in their devotion to the Divine will.
Jonathan recognised in the young shepherd, who unarmed went out alone to meet the mighty Philistine warrior, the same spirit of sublime faith in the Invisible King which had inspired him in days far back to go forth alone with his armour-bearer to attack and capture the Philistine stronghold, when he spoke those memorable words which enable us to understand the character of Jonathan: “It may be that the Lord will work for us: for there is no restraint to the Lord to save by many or by few” (1 Samuel 14:6).
That is an agreement of sincere and perpetual friendship between them.
Because he loved him
Or rather, as Le Clerc renders it, so that each loved the other as his own soul.
For it cannot be supposed but that David loved Jonathan as well as Jonathan loved him.
Their covenant seems to have implied an engagement for mutual assistance and defence, even until death, and kindness to the posterity of each other after either of them was dead.
This was wisely ordered by the providence of God, who, by this means, preserved David in that sharp persecution which shortly after rose against him at court.
The great friendship, which has been the admiration of succeeding generations, began with the strong faith in the Eternal common to the two friends.
Throughout its duration the link which united them was an intense desire to do the will of Him who, as true Hebrew patriots, they felt loved Israel; and when the friends parted for the last time in the wilderness of Ziph, we are told how the elder (Jonathan) strengthened the younger (David’s) “hand in God” (1 Samuel 23:16).
Then Jonathan ☆ יְהוֹנָתָ֛ן (yə·hō·w·nā·ṯān) ☆ Noun – proper – masculine singular ☆ Jonathan — ‘the LORD has given’, the name of a number of Israelites
made ☆ וַיִּכְרֹ֧ת (way·yiḵ·rōṯ) ☆ Conjunctive waw | Verb – Qal – Consecutive imperfect – third person masculine singular ☆ To cut, to destroy, consume, to covenant
a covenant ☆ בְּרִ֑ית (bə·rîṯ) ☆ Noun – feminine singular ☆ A covenant
with David ☆ וְדָוִ֖ד (wə·ḏā·wiḏ) ☆ Conjunctive waw | Noun – proper – masculine singular ☆ David — perhaps ‘beloved one’, a son of Jesse
because he loved ☆ בְּאַהֲבָת֥וֹ (bə·’a·hă·ḇā·ṯōw) ☆ Preposition-b | Noun – feminine singular construct | third person masculine singular ☆ Love (noun)
him ☆ אֹת֖וֹ (’ō·ṯōw) ☆ Direct object marker | third person masculine singular ☆ Untranslatable mark of the accusative case
as himself ☆ כְּנַפְשֽׁוֹ׃ (kə·nap̄·šōw) ☆ Preposition-k | Noun – feminine singular construct | third person masculine singular ☆ A soul, living being, life, self, person, desire, passion, appetite, emotion
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